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Plumbing fittings are those parts that we use when we want to connect different pipes or sections of tubing. They come in many different types, and they are usually differentiated by their function, the type of connection they perform, and the materials that they are made of. For instance, we can find plumbing fittings made of aluminium, brass, steel, or copper. Bell and spigot cast iron pipe and plumbing fittings were very popular as well, but it is becoming obsolete.
As the name suggests, the cap type of fitting is used to cover a pipe. This is a female fitting, which means that it can only be attached to a male type of connection. In order to attach it, you can use a solvent, weld, solder, or thread. You can find caps made of plastic, rubber, steel, or copper.

The purpose of a sleeve fitting is to connect two pipes by using a screw, an anchor, or any other type of mechanical fastener. This fitting is easy and fast to install and is usually made of rubber and can be jacketed with steel or stainless steel.
The role of an adaptor is to connect two pipes that were not originally the same type. Moreover, if you have pipes that have a plain end, you can use an adaptor to either turn them male or female, according to your needs. So, adaptors can be either male or female. If they are male, they contain male threads on one end, and if they are female, they come with female threads. The other end will be plain in order for you to weld it, glue it, or solder it to the end of the pipe you need.
If you have two pipes of the same type and same diameter, you can connect them by using a coupling.
A union is quite similar to a coupling, besides the fact that we can remove it from the position we’ve placed it in whenever we want. Once you use a coupling, you cannot remove it unless you cut it out. Unions can have both male and female threads.
A plug resembles a cap. However, the difference between these two plumbing fittings is that the plug contains male threads, as opposed to the cap which contains female ones. Otherwise, they basically serve the same purpose, which is to cover a pipe opening.
This type of plumbing fitting has 4 openings in 4 different directions, which is why it resembles a cross. You can use it to connect 4 pipes, and it either comes with three outlets and one inlet, or three inlets and one outlet.
A tee has two outlets and one inlet and it is typically more sturdy than a cross fitting. It is shaped like a “T”, with the two outlets at a 90 degree angle from the inlet. Naturally, you can only connect three pipes to a tee, but the fluid flow will be equal. Tees come in different sizes and materials and they can be reducing on the run or on the branch.
The second of the two main types of reduction plumbing fittings is actually called the reducer. This fitting usually reduces the size of the flow by making it smaller. You can find two types of reducers on the market, either concentric or eccentric.
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